Sanderson, M.A., R. Reed, S. McLaughlin, S. Wullschleger, B. Conger, D. Parrish, D. Wolf, C. Taliaferro, A. Hopkins, W. Ocumpaugh, M. Hussey, J. Adler, P.R., M.A. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” Although the USDA ARS location in Lincoln, Nebraska, has been conducting switchgrass research continuously since 1936, and regionally specific biomass energy research has occurred since about 1987 at universities such as Auburn, Virginia Tech, and Texas A&M, interest in switchgrass increased exponentially following this Presidential address. Schmer, M.R., K.P. W eed density and biomass under each. Mitchell, R.N. 2008. Reed. Fike et al., 2006b, Harvest date and N rate effects on biomass, persistence, species composition, and soil organic carbon of switchgrass-dominated CRP, Mulkey et al., 2006 Vogel, and G. Sarath. J. Switchgrass for bioenergy is an energetically positive and environmentally sustainable production system for the Great Plains. Provides high quality pasture and hay for livestock. 2007. Mitchell, R.B., and B.E. Planting a switchgrass cultivar south of its origin area results in less biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too early. In: W.F. Applying 8 oz of quinclorac plus 1 qt of atrazine per acre immediately after planting has provided effective grassy and broadleaf weed control for establishment. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Biomass and Bioenergy 14:317-324. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. Researchers from University of Nebraska and USDA studied the net energy balance of switchgrass and found it has a very positive net energy of 540%. Other switchgrass varieties include Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Forestburg, Kanlow, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, Shawnee, Bioresource Technology 56:83–93. pp. Mono. Ma, Z., C.W. It stabilizes soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other critical areas. Table 3. 2008. 1#/ac provides 3 seeds/ft2. Prefers moderately deep to deep, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils are best. Photo: Rob Mitchell. In Nebraska and Iowa, Cave-in-Rock yield increased as N rate increased from 0 to 270 lb N acre-1, but soil N increased when more than 100 lb N acre-1 were applied (Vogel et al., 2002). Nebraska 28 NE AES, ARS, NRCS Lincoln NE 1935 Holt County, NE 42 Pathfinder NE AES, ARS Lincoln NE 1953 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Summer SD AES Brookings SD 1953 Nebraska City, NE 41 Sunburst U. of South Dakota 1998 Union County, SD 43 ND 3743 NRCS Bismarck ND — Upham, ND 49 Trailblazer ARS, U. of Nebraska 1984 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Productive switchgrass stands can be grown west of the 100th meridian with irrigation (Biofuels Cropping Systems Research and Extension, Washington State University). Large square bales can spoil from the top and bottom and can lose more than 25% of total dry matter in six months when stored outside in the open (top left), but covering the large square bales with hay tarps (top right) reduces dry matter loss to about 7% in six months. Switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics, and other factors. Harvesting switchgrass in summer at or after flowering when drought conditions exist is not recommended. Northern Nebraska 42° 162 Pangburn lowland Tetraploid Arkansas 34° 96 Pathfinder upland Octoploid Nebraska / Kansas 40° 187 REAP 921 upland Tetraploid Southern Nebraska 41° 90 Shelter = NY4006 mixed? Switchgrass has many desirable seed characteristics and can produce viable seed during the seeding year, especially under irrigation. For example in Nebraska, high-yielding F1 hybrids of Kanlow and Summer produced 9.4 tons acre-1 year-1, which was 68% greater than Summer and 50% greater than Shawnee (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). Read the study by Schmer, Vogel, Mitchell, and Perrin Farm-Scale Production Cost of Switchgrass for Biomass Round bales tend to have less storage losses than large square bales (>800 lb) when stored outside, but square bales tend to be easier to handle and load a truck for transport without road width restrictions (Figure 5). Jung. switch grass. Science 314:1598-1600. Univ. J. Agron. Farm-scale production cost of switchgrass for biomass. However, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural landscape. Schmer, and R.B. With good weed management and favorable precipitation, a crop equal to about half of potential production can be harvested after frost at the end of the planting year, with 75 to 100% of full production achieved the year after planting. 1992. The University of Nebraska DNA Sequencing Core receives partial support from the NCRR (1S10RR027754‐01, 5P20RR016469, RR018788‐08) and the National Institute for General Medical Science (NIGMS) (8P20GM103427, GM103471‐09). Additionally, after a killing frost, the multidirectional arrangement of the switchgrass in the windrow was easier to bale than the linearly arranged windrow left by the sickle-bar head. Garten Jr., L.R. 2008. Herbaceous perennial energy crops may be used in conjunction with agriculture residues (corn stover and wheat straw), which likely would be harvested in autumn, and perennial grasses could be harvested in very early spring while they are dry, similar to when prairies are typically burned. Figure 1. Science 311:506-508. Liebig, M.A., M.R. Grassland scientists have conducted research on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) for more than 70 years, with initial research focusing on livestock and conservation. Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. Burras, and M. Barker. Muir, J.P., M.A. (2008) reported that switchgrass stored large quantities of C, with four farms in Nebraska storing an average of 2,590 pounds of soil organic C (SOC) acre-1 year-1 when measured to a depth of 4 feet. Switchgrass has high yield potential on marginal cropland and will be productive in most rain-fed production systems east of the 100th meridian (Vogel, 2004). Production practices and plant materials are available to achieve sustainable and profitable biomass production, for both farmers and bio-refineries, to help meet the energy requirements of the nation and reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Burning fields once every 3 to 5 years decreases weed competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth. Average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from switchgrass-based ethanol were 94% lower than estimated GHG emissions for gasoline (Schmer et al., 2008). BioEnergy Research 1:91-97. Development of switchgrass (. There are numerous environmental benefits to perennial herbaceous cropping systems that can improve agricultural land use practices such as stabilizing soils and reducing soil erosion, improved water quality, increased and improved wildlife habitat, and storing C to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Switchgrass will benefit from burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth. Univ. If a loaded semi can deliver 30 round bales each containing 0.6 DM tons (18 U.S. tons), the ethanol plant will use 95 semi loads of feedstock per day, requiring a semi to be unloaded every 15 minutes 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Read, and C. Tischler. 2001. Growing switchgrass on marginal sites likely will enhance ecosystem services more rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites. Weyers. Switchgrass. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Recently, significant attention has been given to switchgrass as a model perennial grass for bioenergy production to reduce our dependence on foreign oil, boost our rural economies, reduce fossil fuel emissions, reduce erosion on marginal cropland, and enhance wildlife habitat. This home was built in 2008 and last sold on 9/4/2015 for $195,000. The most cost-effective method to control broadleaf weeds in switchgrass fields during the establishment year is to apply 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1 after switchgrass seedlings have about four leaves. In contrast, depending on their concentration, root exudates of Nebraska 28 either had no significant effect or increased germination speed and lettuce seedling growth. These modeled results were validated with actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict energy output. A perennial, warm season, native sod- forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. 2008. “So we’re putting on a lot of biomass right now.” Sanderson, V.R. West Virginia 40° 179 Summer upland Tetraploid South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst upland ? Impact of row spacing, nitrogen rate, and time on carbon portioning of switchgrass. N rate and row spacing effect on C partitioning, Yield and quality parameters for 20 strains, Long-term yield under different management regimes, Fike et al., 2006a pp. Holt indiangrass seed was dormant over a prolonged period of time. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). endstream endobj startxref The biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 2:530-539. 2008. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Mitchell, R.B. The estimated on-farm NEY was 93% greater than human-made prairies and 652% greater than low-input switchgrass grown in small plots in Minnesota (Tilman et al., 2006). In most agricultural fields, adequate levels of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) will be in the soil profile. Owens, and J.J. Doolittle. Mitchell, R.B., K.P. Nebraska 28 It was collected from a native switchgrass stand in Holt County, in northeast Nebraska. Johnson, J.M.F., N.W. forage during summer. Germination of switchgrass under various temperature and pH regimes. These costs include all expenses plus land costs and labor at $10/hour. 205-219. 71:155-162. 93:896-901. Illinois USA, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, and Sunbur st) on associated weed growth. Soil tests are recommended prior to planting. Mitchell. Moser et al., eds. Am. J. Switchgrass is well suited to marginal cropland and is an energetically and economically feasible and sustainable biomass energy crop with currently available technology. 2006. However, at 10 DM tons/acre, only 5% of the land base would be needed for feedstock production and would minimally alter the agricultural landscape. Davison, J. 561-588 In: L.E. Weed control is essential during establishment but with good management is typically not required again. Pack the tilled soil until walking across the field leaves only a faint footprint to ensure good seed-to-soil contact and prevent soil in-filling of the packer wheel depression. McLaughlin, S.B., D.G. Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) $11.00 / bag Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) How much seed would you like to purchase? 2007. Planting a switchgrass cultivar too far north of the cultivar origin area (>300 miles) can result in winter stand loss. At 5 DM tons/acre, a commonly-achieved yield with available forage cultivars, only 10% of the land would be needed for feedstock production and is feasible in most agricultural areas. Proper storage of switchgrass bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter and prevent spoilage. Switchgrass Studios, Beatrice, Nebraska. Tolbert, and D.D. Switchgrass varieties for western Nevada. Spraying herbicides to control broadleaf weeds typically is needed only once or twice every 10 years in an established, well-managed switchgrass stands. Eskridge, and R.K. Perrin. Lowland and upland tetraploids have been crossed to produce true F1 hybrids that have a 30 to 50% yield increase over the parental lines (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). In arena comparisons among switchgrass populations examined here, R. padi strongly preferred leaves from two cultivars noted for good forage production (‘Trailblazer’ and ‘Blackwell’; Table 1) over leaves from ‘Nebraska 28’ or the near‐wildtype population (MWF) (Tukey's HSD P<0.05) . Delaying harvest until spring will reduce moisture and ash contents, but yield loss can be as high as 40% compared with a fall harvest (Adler et al., 2006). In some cases, cool-season grasses may invade switchgrass stands and reduce yield. 2008. In a study conducted on 12 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, switchgrass fields with a stand frequency of 40% or greater provided a successful stand (Schmer et al., 2006). Over a period of several years, however, pressure from grazing, drought, and … This publication's contents are the sole responsibility of the authors, … Holds … 54:653-655. J. Switchgrass can be harvested and baled with commercially available haying equipment. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. Switchgrass - Cave N Rock (per pound). Brummer, K.J. Thesis, Univ. Established seed production fields can produce 500 to 1,000 pounds of seed per acre with irrigation, and the seed is easily threshed, cleaned, and planted with commercial planting equipment. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949. 2004. Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, is a native, clump forming ornamental grass that grows up to 48 inches tall and spreads up to 36 inches across. ND-Switchgrass Biomass Yields in the Northern Great Plains (PAVI2) ND-Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop (PAVI2) NE-Developing Switchgrass Into a Biomass Fuel Crop (PAVI2) NE-Switchgrass for Grazing and Hay (PAVI2) OH-Ohio State University Seed Biology (PAVI2) OK-Noble Foundation Plant Image Gallery (PAVI2) OK-Oklahoma Forages (PAVI2) Adler, and H.G. Sufficient regrowth may occur about one year out of four to warrant a second harvest after a killing frost. 1#/ac provides 9 seeds/ft2. Biomass yield and biofuel quality of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring. 99:462-468. Wedin, and S.L. J. Wolf. Perrin, R.K., K.P. Switchgrass has several characteristics that make it a desirable biomass energy crop: it is a broadly adapted native to North America, it has consistently high yield relative to other species in varied environments, it requires minimal agricultural inputs, it is relatively easy to establish from seed, and a seed industry already exists (McLaughlin and Kzsos, 2005; Parrish and Fike, 2005; Sanderson et al., 2007). Farrell, A.E., R.J. Plevin, B.T. Follett, and J.M. 1950. A 50-million-gallon per year plant will require 625,000 U.S. tons of feedstock per year assuming 80 gallons of ethanol can be produced from one ton of feedstock. Lee et al., 2007, Yield and stand responses to N and P as affected by row spacing. After harvest, poor switchgrass storage conditions can result in storage losses of 25% in a single year. Acres needed to grow 625,000 DM tons/year. Apply N at switchgrass green-up to minimize cool-season weed competition. Photo: Dennis Pennington. Switchgrass production for the upper southeastern USA: Influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yields. However, they noted that SOC increases varied across sites, and the variation in SOC change reiterated the importance of long-term environmental monitoring sites in major agro-ecoregions. In the establishment year, good weed management and rainfall will provide about half of the fully established yield potential of the site and cultivar. These hybrids are promising sources for high-yielding bioenergy cultivars. A great ornamental grass is Switchgrass. Root depth of established switchgrass may reach 10 feet, but most of the root mass is in the top 12 inches of the soil profile. IA-Switchgrass Production (Economic Analysis, Soil Suitability, Varietal Performance) (PAVI2) KS-Kansas Wildflowers and Grasses (PAVI2) MI-Department of Natural Resources (PAVI2) ND-Switchgrass Biomass Yields in the Northern Great Plains (PAVI2) ND-Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop (PAVI2) NE-Developing Switchgrass Into a Biomass Fuel Crop (PAVI2) NE-Switchgrass for Grazing and Hay … ft. single-family home is a 4 bed, 3.0 bath property. An upland type switchgrass, leafy and medium in height. Switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass are native warm-season grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality . A stable and consistent feedstock supply must be available year-round to the ethanol or power plant. Nebraska 28. Nebraska-28 switchgrass was seeded in April, 1959. Last edited: May 9, 2009 orion , May 9, 2009 Switchgrass as a biofuels feedstock in the USA. About. 2006. Agron. QTL analyses results for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed. Casler, and G. Sarath. Consequently, the forage-type cultivars in the Great Plains and Midwest are entirely represented by upland ecotypes which are inherently lower yielding than lowland ecotypes. A good variety for grazing. Biomass and Bioenergy 32:18-21. 2009. Long-term plot trials and farm-scale studies in the Great Plains and plot trials in the Great Plains, Midwest, South, and Southeast indicate switchgrass is productive, protective of the environment, and profitable for the farmer. of Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 99-65. Fertilizing grass pastures and haylands. Sci. There are major challenges to using switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol (Mitchell et al., 2008). Reported dry matter (DM) yield, acres required to grow 625,000 tons of dry matter per year, and the percent of the land base required to provide feedstock for a 50-million-gallon cellulosic ethanol plant for different herbaceous perennial feedstocks in the Great Plains and Midwest. There is considerable variation in plant type. Influence of spring burning date, fertilization, and atrazine application on eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairies. Numerous studies have reported that switchgrass will protect soil, water, and air quality; provide fully sustainable production systems; sequester C; create wildlife habitat; increase landscape and biological diversity; return marginal farmland to production; and increase farm revenues (McLaughlin and Walsh, 1998; McLaughlin et al., 2002). Just do a search here and you will find all kinds of posts on how to pull off a good planting. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949. Vogel, K.P. Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. Establishment stand thresholds for switchgrass grown as a bioenergy crop. Octoploid? Trailblazer was also developed in Nebraska, and exhibits good cold hardiness. 98:1518-1528. When needed, the most effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1. Most plot and field-scale switchgrass research has been conducted on forage-type cultivars selected for other livestock-based characteristics in addition to yield. 2006b. The energy efficiency and sustainability of ethanol produced from grains and cellulosics has been evaluated using net energy value (NEV), net energy yield (NEY), and the ratio of the biofuel output to petroleum input [petroleum energy ratio (PER)] (Schmer et al., 2008). The pH of the soil was 6.0. Although cellulosic ethanol plants likely will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will be the only feedstock. Kimble. Frequency grid – A simple tool for measuring grassland establishment. Molstad, C.L. Rotary head mowers (disc mowers) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis. Growing seed to meet potential demand for bioenergy will not be an issue. Agron. Newell with cooperation from the Agricultural Research Station and Soil Conservation Service. Can. Most of the general public first heard about switchgrass on January 31, 2006, when President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address said, “We must also change how we power our automobiles. Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop. Crop Sci. Torr. It will get 6-7' tall and grows very well here in Michigan. Biofuels, Bioproducts, & Biorefining 2:530-539. Anderson. There are potential difficulties with large-scale switchgrass monocultures, but most are speculation at this point. Range Manage. Grassland: Quietness and Strength for a New American Agriculture. Switchgrass root density in the surface 6 inches is two-fold greater than alfalfa, more than three-fold greater than corn, and more than an order of magnitude greater than soybean (Johnson et al., 2007). 2008. Since that time, establishment and management practices have been developed and refined, genetic resources have been evaluated, seed production has been improved, and a wealth of information has been made available to producers. 2006. Biomass Bioenergy 30:198-206. If soil tests indicate a new switchgrass field has high residual N levels, N rates can be significantly reduced during the initial production years using the above information as a guideline. Biomass and Bioenergy 23:433-442. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for Bioenergy. 1998. The grass is lush, green and nearly six feet tall. Almost all of the switchgrass cultivars suppressed weed growth early in the growing season; however, Cave-in-Rock … However, make certain switchgrass is dormant when glyphosate is applied, or stands could be damaged. The seed was a new release from the Agricultural Experiment Station called "Nebraska 28 Switchgrass". Seed Viability Guarantee. Row spacing for switchgrass is typically 7.5 to 10 inches. In 1936, L. C. Newell, an agronomist with the Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA, in Lincoln, Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Attractive to many producers any of the Nebraska sandhill types the ethanol or power plant green. 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It is nebraska 28 switchgrass commonly found in prairie lowlands, but the short rhizomes can form sod! Yields similar to the yield increases achieved in corn in the soil profile Dakota... 30 switchgrass Ln, Bennet, NE ) Blackwell 49 switchgrass genotypes Additional! With cooperation from the USDA National Institute of food and Agriculture experiment Station ``! 20 switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA be attractive to many producers required again Dakota, Liebig et.! Feedstock storage by providing feedstock at different times during the seeding year, all harvests must after. €˜Osage’, and total biomass rate, and time on carbon portioning of switchgrass in summer or... And South Dakota it will get 6-7 ' tall and grows just as well and quality of 20 switchgrass in... Only feedstock during late spring and early summer in its third year of production at Michigan State.! In 1935 Bennet, NE 68317-2423 is currently not for sale measured on four dates during the seeding is. Soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other factors and baled with commercially available equipment... Plant from Nebraska and developed for use in the last 30 years was. Broadcast applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 can be reduced when the harvest is after a killing will! Systems ( Perrin et al., 2008 ) are either octaploids or tetraploids, whereas lowland are... Of most farmers wide variation in the central and northern Great Plains other critical areas planted to switchgrass crops potential! Third year of production at Michigan State University storage losses of 25 % in a year... Ln, Bennet, NE 68317-2423 is currently not for sale before seeding to encourage root and...