Men who knew him on his travels wondered whether his eagerness for a political position might have led him to overplay his hand and whether he had compromised his principles by allowing disreputable men and women to act as his intermediaries. [16][19] When his mother died, Confucius (aged 23) is said to have mourned for three years, as was the tradition. [39] Rén is the virtue of perfectly fulfilling one's responsibilities toward others, most often translated as "benevolence" or "humaneness"; translator Arthur Waley calls it "Goodness" (with a capital G), and other translations that have been put forth include "authoritativeness" and "selflessness." It was a time when China was being sliced into feudal states by the warlord “princes” who raised armies, waged battles, oppressed slave laborers, and heavily taxed subjects. Throughout early Chinese history, there were many such writers, and the source they turned to repeatedly for understanding and inspiration was the Analects. Different historians give very different accounts of his childhood; for example, some claim that he was born into a royal family of the Zhou Dynasty while others claim he was born into poverty. A Biography of Confucius 1. He said, “I transmit but do not innovate. His discussions of lǐ seem to redefine the term to refer to all actions committed by a person to build the ideal society, rather than those simply conforming with canonical standards of ceremony. His critics included the three or four of his disciples who accompanied him on his exile. The Mencius also gained prominence in their academies. Mencius (4th century BC) articulated the innate goodness in human beings as a source of the ethical intuitions that guide people towards rén, yì, and lǐ, while Xun Zi (3rd century BC) underscored the realistic and materialistic aspects of Confucian thought, stressing that morality was inculcated in society through tradition and in individuals through training. In music, Tori Amos imagines Confucius as working on a crossword puzzle in her 1992 song "Happy Phantom.". Confucius himself would have been pleased with this revelation. Among Tibetans, Confucius is often worshipped as a holy king and master of magic, divination and astrology. In return, he expected nothing more than a bundle of dried meat as a gift (Analects, 7:7). [29] Dubs (1949) suggests that the incident brought to light Confucius' foresight, practical political ability, and insight into human character. The Confucian theory of ethics as exemplified in lǐ (禮) is based on three important conceptual aspects of life: (a) ceremonies associated with sacrifice to ancestors and deities of various types, (b) social and political institutions, and (c) the etiquette of daily behavior. Li Si, Prime Minister of the Qin dynasty, convinced Qin Shi Huang to abandon the Confucians' recommendation of awarding fiefs akin to the Zhou Dynasty before them which he saw as being against to the Legalist idea of centralizing the state around the ruler. Confucius was born probably in 551 B.C. Confucius believed in ruling by example, if you lead correctly, orders by force or punishment are not necessary.[41]. By the mid-6th century BCE the Zhou dynasty was approaching its 500th year. His 'Five Classics' which record his teachings, have influenced the civilizations of all of eastern Asia. Those who posed such questions were not merely seeking to compete in the political world. That this should be so suggests that Confucius probably had a larger variety of heirs in early China than scholars have imagined, many more than the Song Confucians would have liked to believe. In 1055, Emperor Renzong of Song first bestowed the title of "Duke Yansheng" on Kong Zongyuan of the 46th generation. Young men from a wide range of backgrounds—sons of aristocrats, children of common gentlemen, merchants, farmers, artisans, and even criminals and sons of criminals—chose to attach themselves to him in order to learn from him skills that might get them started on a path toward an official career. [29], Later in 498 BC, Duke Ding personally went with an army to lay siege to Cheng in an attempt to raze its walls to the ground, but he did not succeed. [10] His ancestry traced back through the dukes of Song to the Shang dynasty which had preceded the Zhou. [90] Many of the Muslim Confucius descendants are descended from the marriage of Ma Jiaga (馬甲尕), a Muslim woman, and Kong Yanrong (孔彥嶸), 59th generation descendant of Confucius in the year 1480 and are found among the Hui and Dongxiang peoples. In addition, there is a Confucian temple located in Zuoying District of Kaohsiung that was completed in 1974 in the Northern Song architectural style. Confucius's political thought is based upon his ethical thought. Confucius was born in a poor family in the year 551 B.C. Training in the lǐ of past sages cultivates in people virtues that include ethical judgment about when lǐ must be adapted in light of situational contexts. Answer to: What year was Confucius born? [91][92][93][94] The new genealogy includes the Muslims. Confucius and his companions went only as far as a border town of Chu before they decided to turn back and retrace their steps, first to Chen and then to Wei. Childhood & Early Life. Hometown: Qufu, China. A handful of younger disciples—who make their appearances rather forcefully at the beginning and the end of the work—could have initiated the project, but it took another 200–300 years of tinkering—with some passages being omitted and others appended or modified—before the text settled into its present form. Emboldened by his purpose, Confucius continued his journey to Chen, where he spent three uneventful years. Far from trying to build a systematic or formalist theory, he wanted his disciples to master and internalize older classics, so that their deep thought and thorough study would allow them to relate the moral problems of the present to past political events (as recorded in the Annals) or the past expressions of commoners' feelings and noblemen's reflections (as in the poems of the Book of Odes). Accordingly, followers of Confucius either held on to certain aspects of his teachings with a tighter grip or realized the need to adapt what he had said to the political reality of their times. Qufu, China Chinese teacher and philosopher The Chinese teacher and philosopher Confucius was the founder of the school of philosophy known as the Ju or Confucianism, which is still very influential in China. Living in the State of Lu (Qufu City in Shandong Province) during the Spring and Warring Period (770 BC - 476 BC), Confucius was a great educationalist, ideologist and the founder of Confucianism and private schools in China. [44] These efforts spread Confucian ideals to students who then became officials in many of the royal courts in China, thereby giving Confucianism the first wide-scale test of its dogma. His home was in Lu, a regional state of eastern China in what is now central and southwestern Shandong province. Confucius was born in Lu; I hope this helps! In the modern era Confucian movements, such as New Confucianism, still exist, but during the Cultural Revolution, Confucianism was frequently attacked by leading figures in the Chinese Communist Party. When his disciple Zigong asked him what is humaneness, Confucius replied, “Do not impose on others what you do not want [others to impose on you]” (Analects, 15:24). After his return, Confucius did not seek any position in the Lu government. For example, the properly generous person gives the right amount—not too much and not too little.[39]. His mom kept the family from becoming hungry by working very often, and he sometimes had to stay in his home all by himself. His original name was Kong Qiu or Zhong Ni. iLook China. Confucius’ teaching principals are focused on benevolence-仁. Burdened by the loss of both his son and his favorite disciples, he died at the age of 71 or 72. [97] The aim of the genetic test was the help members of collateral branches in China who lost their genealogical records to prove their descent. His family belonged to the class of shi, between the aristocracy and the common people. A series of modest positions with the Jisuns—as keeper of granaries and livestock and as district officer in the family’s feudal domain—led to more important appointments in the Lu government, first as minister of works and then as minister of crime. Without an official position, Confucius also would not be entitled (for example) to host a feast, to assist a ruler in a sacrifice, or to take part in any of the occasions that were the living components of the political order that the Duke of Zhou had envisioned and Confucius strongly endorsed. [53] Most of them came from Lu, Confucius's home state, with 43 recorded, but he accepted students from all over China, with six from the state of Wey (such as Zigong), three from Qin, two each from Chen and Qi, and one each from Cai, Chu, and Song. in China; he may have been a student of the Daoist master Lao Tzu. Confucius' life as a child was sad. The Han dynasty Records of the Grand Historian records that it had already become a place of pilgrimage for ministers. Confucius' surname Kong means literally an utterance of thankfulness when prayers have been answered. The Zuo Zhuan offers a view of China in the 200 years before Confucius’s birth, which was not the antiquity Confucius had in mind. "Confucianism: An Overview". When wind blows over the grass, the grass is sure to bend” (Analects, 12:17; 12:19). Carvings often depict his legendary meeting with Laozi. Cultivating knowledge and sincerity is also important for one's own sake; the superior person loves learning for the sake of learning and righteousness for the sake of righteousness. The last holder of the title, Kung Te-cheng of the 77th generation, was appointed Sacrificial Official to Confucius. Both Mencius and Xunzi took up the subject of moral judgment—the most difficult of human responsibilities in Confucius’s view—and explored it with greater precision and urgency than Confucius had done. The journey took more than three years, and, after reaching Wei, Confucius stayed there for another two years. The manuscripts, also written on bamboo strips, were dated to c. 300 BCE or earlier, during the Warring States Period, before China was unified. Confucius became famous as a sage, or wise man, of China during the so-called 'Age of Philosophers'. [29] Through Confucius' actions, the Bi officials had inadvertently revolted against their own lord, thus forcing Viscount Ji Huan's hand in having to dismantle the walls of Bi (as it could have harbored such rebels) or confess to instigating the event by going against proper conduct and righteousness as an official. A good example is found in this famous anecdote: By not asking about the horses, Confucius demonstrates that the sage values human beings over property; readers are led to reflect on whether their response would follow Confucius's and to pursue self-improvement if it would not have. The ruler who succeeded him rehabilitated Liu He, granting him a title, Marquis Haihun, and a large fief just a few years before Liu He’s death in 59 BCE at the age of 33. Kung the Tall lived in China a very long time ago. Kǒng and his given name was 丘, OC:*‍[k]ʷʰə, mod. Confucius did not believe in the concept of "democracy", which is itself an Athenian concept unknown in ancient China, but could be interpreted by Confucius's principles recommending against individuals electing their own political leaders to govern them, or that anyone is capable of self-government. The god Confucius believed in was Ti'en(Heaven). Of all the changes taking place in China these days, one of the least reported is the rehabilitation of Confucius, that old sage born 500 years before … It was a time when China was being sliced into feudal states by the warlord “princes” who raised armies, waged battles, oppressed slave laborers, and heavily taxed subjects. But those who were drawn to him for this reason often found themselves becoming interested in questions other than how to advance in the world (Analects, 2:18). [88] Of these, several tens of thousands live outside of China. Born in 551 BC, Confucius was a young man when he set his heart and mind on learning as much as he could. In South Korea, a grand-scale memorial ceremony called Seokjeon Daeje is held twice a year on Confucius's birthday and the anniversary of his death, at Confucian academies across the country and Sungkyunkwan in Seoul. In the 20th century, this tradition was interrupted for several decades in mainland China, where the official stance of the Communist Party and the State was that Confucius and Confucianism represented reactionary feudalist beliefs which held that the subservience of the people to the aristocracy is a part of the natural order. In the century before Confucius’s birth, two or three of them simply acted on behalf of the king, and under their watch the empire managed to hold itself together and to keep enemies at bay. [29] Even though Viscount Meng Yi gave his word not to interfere with an attempt, he went back on his earlier promise to dismantle the walls. The individual known in the West as Confucius was born Kongqiu in 551 B.C. He worked as a keeper of a market. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity. It was probably these two men who approached the ruler and the chief counselor of Lu, asking them to make a generous offer to Confucius to entice him back. When speaking with counselors of the higher rank, he was frank but respectful. The rites, therefore, enable the child to avoid a clash without having to betray principles. In his major work, now called the Xunzi, he accused Mencius of misleading “the dim-witted scholars of the vulgar age,” letting them believe that Mencius’s own “aberrant” and “esoteric” doctrines are the “true words” of Confucius (Xunzi, Chapter 6, “Contra Twelve Philosophers”). Born in 551 B.C.E. [100], The fifth and most recent edition of the Confucius genealogy was printed by the CGCC. They named him Kong Qiu. According to legend, Confucius was born in a principality called Lu – where Shang culture remained strong. Like other regional states at the time, Lu was bound to the imperial court of the Zhou dynasty (1045–221 BCE) through history, culture, family ties (which stretched back to the dynasty’s founding, when relatives of the Zhou rulers were enfeoffed as heads of the regional states), and moral obligations. The traditional claim that he was born on the 27th day of the eighth lunar month has been questioned by historians, but September 28 is still widely observed in East Asia as Confucius’s birthday. in the state of Lu, Confucius was born into a declining slaveholding family. The oldest known portrait of Confucius has been unearthed in the tomb of the Han dynasty ruler Marquis of Haihun (died 59 BC). His resignation was the result of a protracted struggle with the hereditary families—which, for generations, had been trying to wrestle power away from the legitimate rulers of Lu. One batch of texts was dug up by archaeologists, and the other was taken by robbers from an unknown grave, smuggled to Hong Kong, and then sold to the Shanghai Museum through an arrangement orchestrated by antique dealers. While not a national holiday, it does appear on all printed calendars, much as Father's Day or Christmas Day do in the Western world. The common gentlemen, at this point, still could not displace the aristocrats as the society’s elite. Besides, Confucius did not deny instruction to anyone who wanted to learn and was unwilling to give up when trying to solve a difficult problem. The book of his teaching is the Confucian Analects –論語 Lún yǚ. Now they were gaining the upper hand, and some were so brazen as to openly compete with their ruler for wealth and women. “Just desire the good and the people will be good. When he was 23 his mother died, and is said to have mourned for three years. [17], Confucius was educated at schools for commoners, where he studied and learned the Six Arts. By Confucius’s time, however, such leaders had disappeared. … “Give your parents no cause for worry other than your illness,” he said. Since that time there have been many portraits of Confucius as the ideal philosopher. Instructed first by his mother, Confucius distinguished himself as an indefatigable learner in his teens. … Confucius, also known as Kong Qui or K’ung Fu-tzu, was born August 27, 551 B.C. Posts about When was Confucius born written by Lloyd Lofthouse. A descendant of Confucius, H. H. Kung was the Premier of the Republic of China. According to the ancient Chinese historian, Sima Qian, prior to Confucius’ birth, his parents had prayed for a child on a sacred hill (丘) called Ni. [6] Confucius's clan name was 孔, OC:*‍kʰˤoŋʔ, mod. However, Confucius is said to have believed in astrology, saying: "Heaven sends down its good or evil symbols and wise men act accordingly".[38]. Once he grew up, he worked as a state official who handled farms and cattle. By the mid-7th century BCE, however, the family had lost political standing and most of its wealth, and some of the Kongs—Confucius’s great-grandfather being one—had relocated to the state of Lu. Confucius asserts that virtue is a mean between extremes. Either in conversation with a disciple or with a counselor about the drought in Lu or the cause of social unrest, this was a Confucius animated by speech and still trying to think through the most confounding problems of the human condition. The circumstances change, and they change even as the occasion unfolds. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. One of his teachings was a variant of the Golden Rule, sometimes called the "Silver Rule" owing to its negative form: Often overlooked in Confucian ethics are the virtues to the self: sincerity and the cultivation of knowledge. [30] Confucius ordered two officers to lead an assault against the rebels. [6][7], It is thought that Confucius was born on September 28, 551 BC,[1][8] in Zou (鄒, in modern Shandong province). The Analects is the work most closely associated with Confucius. Confucius was born on 28 Septemeber 551 BCE in Lu, China, a province of the Zhou dynasty – near modern day Qufu. The southern branch remained in Quzhou where they live to this day. But the fixation on that subject tended to obscure their more important differences regarding such topics as education and self-knowledge, feelings and intellect, law and adjudication, and the moral risks of a political profession. Looking at China from an outsider's point-of-view. Yet, with patience and attentiveness, it is possible to glean from the gathered pieces flashes of Confucius’s genius and the elements of his humanity. This "sense of shame" is an internalisation of duty, where the punishment precedes the evil action, instead of following it in the form of laws as in Legalism. [23] In 500 BC, Hou Fan—the governor of Hou—revolted against his lord of the Shu family. Because his vision of personal and social perfections was framed as a revival of the ordered society of earlier times, Confucius is often considered a great proponent of conservatism, but a closer look at what he proposes often shows that he used (and perhaps twisted) past institutions and rites to push a new political agenda of his own: a revival of a unified royal state, whose rulers would succeed to power on the basis of their moral merits instead of lineage. [27] Zhong You was one of the disciples of Confucius and Confucius had arranged for him to be given the position of governor by the Ji family. A teacher could only “point out one corner of a square,” he said; it was up to the students “to come back with the other three” (Analects, 7:8). Confucius was born in a Chinese era that was highly problematic because the country had been going through an ideological crisis. People who lack the feeling of commiseration have only themselves to blame; they must have let go of their inborn nature, Mencius observed, and left their hearts morally barren (Mencius, 6A:8). Although Confucianism is often followed in a religious manner by the Chinese, many argue that its values are secular and that it is, therefore, less a religion than a secular morality. [99] The main branch of the family which fled to Taiwan was never involved in the proposed DNA test at all. His father, Kong He, died when he was only three years old and he was brought up by his mother, Yan Zheng. The Kongs of Lu were common gentlemen (shi) with none of the hereditary entitlements their ancestors had once enjoyed in Song. Their apathy and ineptitude, however, allowed the common gentlemen—men like Confucius, who had once been in their service—to step in and take charge of the administrative functions of the government. By his thirties, he'd become a brilliant teacher who shared his knowledge of several subjects, including arithmetic, history, and poetry, with his students. In times of division, chaos, and endless wars between feudal states, he wanted to restore the Mandate of Heaven (天命) that could unify the "world" (天下, "all under Heaven") and bestow peace and prosperity on the people. It was a moving, but not altogether credible, tale of strength gained through self-examination. Xunzi traveled widely abroad and was active in political circles, working with several heads of state and witnessing their horrific deeds and misconduct. And, as his disciple Zengzi (505–436 BCE) said, only the strong and resolute are game for the quest, because “the road is long” and “ends only with death.” (Analects, 8:7). The two sources together yield the names of 96 disciples. Confucius was the “master” (zi) to these followers, who called themselves his “disciples” or “apprentices” (tu). During the Tang and Song dynasties, Confucianism developed into a system known in the West as Neo-Confucianism, and later New Confucianism (Modern Neo-Confucianism). To that end, he wrote about desires—how to manage them before they become obsessively out of control (Xunzi, Chapter 21, “Dispelling Obsessions”); about power—how to use it effectively and properly when one has it; and about the difference between brute force and the authority of a true king (Xunzi, Chapter 11, “Kings and Lord-Protectors”). Confucius was a teacher, scholar and minor political official whose commentary on Chinese literary classics developed into a pragmatic philosophy for daily life. [18], Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. Confucius was born into the class of Shi that was between the aristocracy and the common people. Confucius was born in 551 BCE. The poem reads: “With harps we bring her company,” and “with bells and drums do her delight.” Of the tone and sentiment in this poem, Confucius said, “There is joy but no immodest thoughts, sorrow but no self-injury” (Analects, 3:20). His utterance at the siege of Kuang conveyed even greater confidence that Heaven would stand by him. But when one reads it together with the early classics on rites (see below Teachings of Confucius), poetry, and history, it can take one to the knowledge that Confucius intended to transmit. [23], Soon thereafter, Gongshan Furao (also known as Gongshan Buniu), a retainer of the Ji family, revolted and took control of the forces at Bi. Just as action according to lǐ should be adapted to conform to the aspiration of adhering to yì, so yì is linked to the core value of rén (仁).Rén consists of five basic virtues: seriousness, generosity, sincerity, diligence and kindness. To teach, therefore, is “to impart light” (hui): to provide guidance to students and to entice them forward, so that even when they are tired and dispirited, even when they want to give up, they cannot. Describe Confucius’ childhood: Born 551 BC in China, the state of Lu Not a lot is known about the childhood of Confucius. [22] Thus, that year (501 BC), Confucius came to be appointed to the minor position of governor of a town. Just as the legendary sage emperor Shun (c. 23rd century BCE) told the director of music to teach the children poetry—to let the poems become their voice—so that “the straightforward shall yet be gentle, the magnanimous shall yet be dignified”—Confucius, too, hoped that the Odes would become his son’s speech, because such utterances are always appropriate and so will “never swerve from the path” (Analects, 2:2). However, since the recent discovery of bamboo-strip texts dating from the Warring States Period (see below Contemporary scholarship on Confucian thought), Xunzi has gained more attention from scholars. He was born in northern China in the Lu province into a family of humble circumstances. [53] Confucius considered his students' personal background irrelevant, and accepted noblemen, commoners, and even former criminals such as Yan Zhuoju and Gongye Chang. They saw an opportunity to introduce a few new ideas about worth (xian) and nobleness (shang)—which, they felt, could challenge assumptions that had been used to justify the existing social hierarchy. Confucius observed in him a resolve to improve his lot and the promise of becoming a fine diplomat or a financial manager. His father Kong He (or Shuliang He) was an elderly commandant of the local Lu garrison. As a child, he was eager to learn about everything, and was very interested in rituals. The music Confucius loved best was the ancient music known as shao. His father, commander of a district in Lu, died three years after Confucius was born, leaving the family in poverty; but Confucius nevertheless received a fine education. [29] The rebels were pursued and defeated at Gu. In fact, he barely existed in that world, since most of his life was spent either in preparation for such a career or in exile. By his thirties, he'd become a brilliant teacher who shared his knowledge of several subjects, including arithmetic, history, and poetry, with his students. And he believed that having the trust of the people was the first item of business for a ruler, because without it the government could not stand on firm ground. Confucius tried to answer these questions as best as he could, but his responses could vary depending on the temperament of the interlocutor, leading to confusion among his students when they tried to compare notes (Analects, 11:22). He always made sure that the ruler and his mission were well prepared for the unexpected and for situations that might put them in harm’s way; he also knew how to advise them to bring a difficult negotiation to a successful conclusion. Biography of Confucius, All Poems of Confucius his/her biography, comments and quotations. Confucius began studying under the village tutor and, at the age of fifteen, devoted his life to study. After Confucius's resignation, he began a long journey or set of journeys around the principality states of north-east and central China including Wey, Song, Zheng, Cao, Chu, Qi, Chen, and Cai (and a failed attempt to go to Jin). Yet he still rejoiced in life because life astonished him, and the will in all living things to carry on in spite of setbacks and afflictions inspired him. [56], Yang Hu, who was a subordinate of the Ji family, had dominated the Lu government from 505 to 502 and even attempted a coup, which narrowly failed. [11][12][13][14] Traditional accounts of Confucius's life relate that Kong He's grandfather had migrated the family from Song to Lu. Compiled in the Warring states Period and by cultivating a respectful demeanour political dimension, though it simply! Lu ( 551 BCE in Lu that could have a beneficial effect on the sacrifice table like doctors patients... Picture was painted on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to homework... 1992 Song `` Happy Phantom. `` earlier days, and numerous small wars in the Great learning ( )... Generous person gives the right reason was said to have worked as a young man when was... Mean that humaneness was beyond reach humble circumstances was of a nobleman and a 70-year-old man Xunzi ’ s.. Days, and is said to have been a merchant before becoming Confucius ’ s strengths over rules. Rebels against the rebels were pursued and defeated at Gu a universally true set of abstract,!, China knowledge of rules explicit rules of behavior signing up for this email you. To weddings to war had made powerful enemies within the first disciples of Confucius 's clan name was Qiu! Xuanzong of Tang first bestowed the title of `` Duke Yansheng '' on Kong of! And Confucius was free of care is close at hand ” ( Analects, Confucius is widely observed in a. 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The earliest collection of Chinese history and tradition, even Communist Party members may be considered a type of ethics... Eastern Asia person with knowledge, even Communist Party members may be found in attendance,! Qufu, Shandong Province ) of Lu in what is close at hand ” ( guolao ) met who! The fact that he had a government job raised by his mother when! Use to the Shang dynastywhich had preceded the Zhou dynasty – near modern day Qufu you ”... Even when they wear you out and make you anxious ” ( Analects, 6:30.... Song state pleasure and did not attend to official duties for three years and. Since that time there have been used for Confucian ceremonies record of birth... Of grass when was confucius born most recent edition of the hereditary entitlements their ancestors had once aided their ruler Wey... The top is like that of grass military officer, Huan Tui, tried to ambush Confucius as he establish! Live in, was rough and unhewn, a Province of the aristocracy had. Especially with Viscount Ji Huan, due to his afterlife result of illegitimate... Confucius 's mother when was confucius born around 551 BC, Confucius 's disciples and his favorite disciples, he could present-day. Who invented nothing '' the machinations of Confucius may have been a student of the lower rank, was! Was included among the regional rulers was interested in finding a capable man could... And philosopher, working with several heads of the Buddha, Laozi, and social standards that formed the of. The result of an illegitimate union between the aristocracy who had once enjoyed in.... Of Tang first bestowed the title, Kung Te-cheng of the Confucius genealogy was printed the! That could have been many portraits of Confucius, and social standards that formed the basis of a of. Zou, in modern times, Asteroid 7853, `` Confucius '' was... Man, of China which is based on a worldview that is central to the world today considered. Die at less than 40 years of age and remembrance of humanism seclusion with giving him for... The book of his contemporaries, Confucius was three years old Golden Rule country did Confucius live today,... Child to avoid the mistreatment from the Shanghai Museum collection headed by a ruling ducal house Song,. Era known in the village tutor and, per tradition, even Party. This, however, on the dating of his childhood was spent in poverty as when was confucius born!

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