[USGS] US Geological Survey, Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center. Decreasing glaciers.—One of the most visible manifestations of climate warming in Montana is the rapid melting of the last remaining glaciers in Glacier National Park. This chapter synthesizes scientific information on how climate change is influencing the supply and distribution of water in Montana. By comparison, the highest annual snowpack totals east of the Continental Divide (20-35 inches [0.5-0.9 m] of SWE) are generally located at elevations over 8000 ft (2400 m) (NRCS 2016). Even so, our forecasting abilities must further improve for Montanans to better prepare for short-term variation in weather patterns and expected long-term impacts associated with climate change. The current Montana Climate Assessment is focused on understanding relationships between climate change and water resources, with minimal focus on how water use and water management interact with climate. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation. For this assessment, we focus on the first two. 2016), and regional climate models also consistently predict increases in extreme precipitation in the northwestern US. Cambridge UK and New York NY: Cambridge University Press. 2004. East of the Continental Divide, continental air masses dominate and the climate is generally more arid. 2003. Water demand and management in the context of a changing climate.—, Improving the accuracy of models in Montana.—, Maintain and expand our water monitoring network.—. Le temps typique (habituel) en Montana en Novembre est-ce: La température la plus élevée moyenne Montana à Novembre est 10.1 ℃ (50.18 ℉). 2005; Pederson et al. Low-elevation SNOTEL sites west of the Continental Divide in the Kootenai Basin (approximately 4200 ft [1280 m]) typically record maximum snowpack at the end of March and snow is absent by early May. Influence of the PNA on declining mountain snowpack in the western United States. We depend on an adequate supply of clean water for nearly every aspect of our lives, including food production, hydroelectric power, domestic and industrial uses, and sustaining our treasured natural ecosystems. Mote PW, Sharp D. 2016. 2009). 2010; USDA-NASS 2015). Silverman NL, Maneta MP. Groundwater—water that is stored and transmitted in aquifers below the Earth’s surface—is a crucial but hidden part of the water cycle. Available online http://climate.nkn.uidaho.edu/IntegratedScenarios/. For the two focal rivers in eastern Montana (Powder River near Locate and Poplar River near Poplar), August flows are most dependent upon summer precipitation (Figure 3-22), likely because eastern Montana receives a higher percentage of precipitation in spring and summer relative to the other parts of the state. 2011a; Dai 2013; Trenberth et al. 2014). 2015. Contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. More than 900 wells (black dots) obtain water from the Madison Limestone aquifer near Great Falls. Power TM, Power DS. Spears M, Harrison A, Sankovich V, Gangopadhyay S. 2013. Hydrological Processes 27(18):2691-8. 2006), a trend that is expected to continue under future climate conditions (Barnett et al. Knowles K. 2015. Available online http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/water/snowsurvey/. Journal of Climate 29(18):6783-804. [high agreement, robust evidence], Earlier onset of snowmelt and spring runoff will reduce late-summer water availability in snowmelt-dominated watersheds. 12 1 acre-foot is 325,851 gal (1233 m3), enough water to cover an acre of land 1 ft (0.3 m) deep. In contrast, La Niña episodes typically result in below-average temperatures, above-average precipitation, and above-average snowpack. Pederson GT, Gray ST, Woodhouse CA, Betancourt JL, Fagre DB, Littell JS, Watson E, Luckman BH, Graumlich, LJ. Indeed, western Montana is often called the Crown of the Continent because headwater streams originating there give rise to the major rivers that drain three of North America’s largest watersheds, those of the Columbia, Missouri-Mississippi, and Saskatchewan rivers. Helena MT: State of Montana, DNRC. Winter and spring precipitation, coupled with seasonal patterns of solar radiation, heavily influence streamflow in these rivers. Modeled climate-induced glacier change in Glacier National Park, 1850–2100. For example, below-average winter precipitation can lead to smaller mountain snowpack volumes, which tend to result in shorter duration spring runoff (Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Stewart et al. Luce and Holden (2009) reported declines in annual streamflow during the driest years (i.e., lowest 25th flow percentile) for a set of Pacific Northwest rivers, including some rivers in Montana west of the Continental Divide. For watersheds with high-elevation headwaters, the overall patterns in model projection are consistent: a larger percentage of water will leave high elevations during the winter and early spring, leaving much less water to support streamflow later in the year during summer and early fall. Questions or concerns about USGS streamflow data in Montana and Wyoming can be directed to Kirk Miller (kmiller@usgs.gov; 307-775-9168).Updated September 18, 2020 - USGS water-resources monitoring activities were restored effective August 17, 2020 at the following site:. Some sections of rivers that currently support trout fisheries may transition gradually into bass fisheries. In general, April 1 snow water equivalent in Montana has declined roughly 20% over the last 80 yr, and this decline is most pronounced at lower elevation sites. Reservoirs simulated in the model include Clark Canyon, Canyon Ferry, Gibson, and Tiber reservoirs, as well as some smaller state and private projects. Climatic Change 132(2):237-49. Climate factors associated with naturalized streamflow in four Montana river basins. Satellite images show Glacier Park’s ice fields shrinking. Warming temperatures in March and April initiate the snowmelt process, driving a significant rise in the hydrograph (Figure 3-6). For the Marias River near Shelby, high spring temperatures also negatively influence August flows, likely because of accelerated snowmelt. Dai A. Integrated scenarios project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88(3):319-28. 2015. Most of the groundwater used in the state comes from shallow sand or gravel aquifers in river floodplains (Figure 3-4). warmed more than most of the contiguous United States. Changes in late-summer flows are likely to be more critical to people than changes in annual flows because the demand for water is highest in summer. Most consider the Dust Bowl drought to be the worst multi-year drought in the observational record in Montana. 2005. Long-term snowpack variability and change in the North American cordillera. Cold Water Inlet Temperatures for Selected U.S. We conducted an updated assessment of Montana’s April 1 SWE to assess variability and trends over the full record—from the late 1930s to present—of NRCS Snow Course observations. April 1 is considered an optimal date for examining trends because it is the most continuously collected date in the observational record; some sites have been recorded continuously for over 80 yr (Mote et al. A climate chart for your city, indicating the monthly high temperatures and rainfall. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-08/documents/snowpack_do... http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/clar... http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/lowe... http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/uppe... http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/yell... http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/drought-management, http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/national/water/snowsurvey/, http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/2008JCLI2405.1. The spatial and temporal variability of rain-on-snow. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 31(1):79-95. Integrated scenarios of the future Northwest environment [website]. 2016. Accessed 2017 Mar 6. 2015. The impact of decadal fluctuations in mean precipitation and temperature on runoff: a sensitivity study over the United States. specific knowledge of the hydrogeology for many aquifers across the state to assess the impact of climate change on groundwater resources and develop adaptive strategies; and. Sheffield J, Wood EF. Karl TR, Knight RW. On average, the weather during the summer is warm and dry, with … 14-day forecast - Meteored. Available online, [USGS] US Geological Survey. While these major droughtss affected all of Montana—and indeed much of the West—the severity, duration, and timing of each drought varied across the state (Figure 3-13), including in their influence on the larger river basins (MT DNRC 2015). gauging station. These floods are most common east of the Continental Divide during persistent cold weather fronts. Historically, temperature appears to be a secondary response to drought, rather than an initial driver. Snowmelt runoff refers to snow and ice melting into liquid water, which eventually moves downhill and accumulates to produce streamflow. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. In Montana, there are 4 comfortable months with high temperatures in the range of 70-85°. Power TM, Power DS. In the lower Yellowstone River basin, the Fox Hills–Hell Creek aquifer serves about 1500 wells (Figure 3-21). Yellowstone River basin, water plan 2014. You can jump to a separate table for each region of the state: Northwestern, Southwestern, South - Central and Eastern Montana. Global water resources: vulnerability from climate change and population growth. 2016. These groups incorporate drought preparedness and management goals into Montana water policy (see Building Drought Resilience sidebar). Drought during the warm season is a common phenomenon in arid and snowmelt-dominated regions in the West, including much of Montana. Fritts HC. Customize table to display other current-condition parameters, Big Hole River bl Big Lake Cr at Wisdom MT, Big Hole River at Maiden Rock nr Divide MT, Big Hole R bl Hamilton Ditch nr Twin Bridges, MT, Jefferson River at Parsons Bdg nr Silver Star, MT, Madison River bl Hebgen Lake nr Grayling MT, Madison River at Kirby Ranch nr Cameron MT, Madison River bl Ennis Lake nr McAllister MT, Gallatin River above Deer Creek, near Big Sky, MT, Missouri River bl Holter Dam nr Wolf Cr MT, Birch Creek at Bullhead Bridge, nr Valier, MT, Marias River at Highway 223 bridge near Chester,MT, East Poplar River at international boundary, Shields River abv Smith Cr, nr Wilsall, MT, W Rosebud Cr at Emerald Lk Campground nr Roscoe, Tongue River at Tongue R Dam nr Decker MT, Tongue R bl Brandenberg bridge nr Ashland MT, Blacktail Creek above Grove Gulch, at Butte, MT, Silver Bow Creek at Montana Street, at Butte, MT, Clark Fork ab Little Blackfoot R nr Garrison MT, Hallowat Creek abv Kletomus Creek, near Olney, MT, Big Creek below Lookout Creek, near Apgar, MT, Swiftcurrent Cr ab Swiftcurrent Lk at Many Glacier. Journal of Climate 27(12):4581-606. Prepared for Montana Farmers’ Union by Power Consulting Inc. 28 p. Available online http://montanafarmersunion.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/FINAL_Impact_C.... Accessed 2017 May 9. www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/NorWeST/ModeledStreamTemperatureSce... http://www.mbmg.mtech.edu/gwap/grw-assessment.asp. The photos are from 1932 (left) and 2005 (right). Wyatt F. Cross, John LaFave, Alex Leone, Whitney Lonsdale, Alisa Royem, Tom Patton, and Stephanie McGinnis. Lukas J, Barsugli J, Doesken N, Rangwala I, Wolter K. 2014. Dressler KA, Fassnacht SR, Bales RC. Water generated by Montana’s snowpack travels to the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans. 2009). Several of these stations are located at relatively low elevations (5000-6500 ft [1500-1980 m]), but receive over 40 inches (1 m) of SWE each year. p 178-83. 2013a). Impacts of climate change on August stream discharge in the central Rocky Mountains. It is very likely that increased water use in the future will further reduce streamflows during summer months when demand is greatest (see drought section below). Water: impacts, risks, and adaptation [chapter]. In the absence of increased precipitation, higher rates of evapotranspiration can move substantial amounts of water back to the atmosphere (Figure 3-1), leading to reductions in streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge. 2016. A titre de comparaison à Washington, la température moyenne annuelle est de 14.4°C et les précipitations sont en moyenne de 1078.4 mm. Although these three rivers receive the vast majority of their annual precipitation in winter and spring (70-78%), summer precipitation can also have an important influence on August flows (Figure 3-22). Location of the hydrograph wells is shown in Figure 3-18. Assessing the risk of persistent drought using climate model simulations and paleoclimate data. 2008. It is likely that this trend will continue into the future. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(Supplement 2):19685-92. Groundwater also plays a crucial role in sustaining streamflow throughout the year. Any potential decline in summer precipitation is also projected with medium confidence for many areas in Montana (see Climate chapter). Even for areas in eastern Montana that receive most of their annual precipitation in spring and summer, water in larger watersheds is predominantly derived from mountain snowpack (MT DNRC 2014b), and thus streamflow there follows a similar seasonal pattern (Figure 3-6). Ground water assessment [website]. 2005), combined with increased variability of late-fall-winter precipitation. U.S. Geological Survey Detectability of change in winter precipitation within mountain landscapes: spatial patterns and uncertainty. 2016. This website uses cookies. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2(1):45-65. 2011a). 428 p. [USDA-NASS] US Department of Agriculture—National Agricultural Statistics Service. Projected shifts in temperature and precipitation are likely to reduce diffuse recharge to the Fox Hills–Hell Creek aquifer and accelerate the current depletion by water users. 2016). El Niño Southern Oscillation: Montana [website]. Climatic Change 102(1-2):287-317. Nature Climate Change 4(1):17-22. Wilhite DA. Climate science for serving society: research, modeling and prediction priorities. Flood events can also occur in winter as a result of ice jams, which impede flow in the river channel and lead to floodplain inundation. [undated]. In the Rocky Mountains, spring (February-March) warming since the 1980s has been largely responsible for recent snowpack declines at mid- and low-elevation sites (Pederson et al. [undated]. Mote PW. Boston. Fish moving upstream.—Studies already show that distributions of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and bull trout have shifted upstream as fish seek to access cooler habitats (Eby et al. Timing of present and future snowmelt from high elevations in northwest Montana. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 19(6):2821-36. Long-term variation in snowpack and the importance of ocean-atmosphere linkages. Although the different projections show slight differences in timing among rivers, the overall patterns are consistent: a larger percentage of water will leave these watersheds during winter and early spring, resulting in much less water to support streamflow during summer and early fall. Earth Interactions 15(17):1-37. The reported Lake Ontario water temperature is taken at the Monroe County Water Treatment Plant near Greece, N.Y. Regional patterns and proximal causes of the recent snowpack decline in the Rocky Mountains, US. 2014). Hay LE, Markstrom SL, Ward-Garrison C. 2011. Given the projected increases in streamflow during winter and spring, maintaining streamflows during warm season months will likely necessitate reconsideration of water storage practices and reservoir management. Spring warm spells are occurring more frequently and earlier in recent years, and even modest warming in winter or spring can lead to large changes in snowmelt and runoff dynamics, especially at lower elevations (Regonda et al. Montana: US Bureau of Reclamation. Missoulian. 2011b. See sidebar titled “Expressed Confidence in MCA Key Messages” in the Introduction chapter. 3 Results. This article gives the allowable limits set on hot water temperatures for hot water used in buildings and compares regulations in various countries. Yet warming is also likely to increase the amount of winter and spring precipitation that falls as rain (particularly in rain-snow transition zones), which will accelerate snowmelt and could increase flood risk, depending on antecedent snowpack, soil moisture, and other conditions. Page Last Modified: 2020-12-20 18:37:12 EST 2011a. Mid-elevation locations tend to be most sensitive to warming trends because small increases in temperature sometimes result in temperatures rising above freezing, which is less likely at higher (and thus colder) elevations. 2009; Pederson et al. Data represent observed and projected shifts in the center of timing17 of streamflow. In addition, year-to-year fluctuations in spring precipitation may be contributing to variation in the timing of runoff among years (Pederson et al. A repeat photography project conducted by the USGS highlighted the dramatic changes over the past 150 yr (photos). Water resources [chapter]. Assessment of climate change in the southwest United States: a report prepared for the National Climate Assessment by the Southwest Climate Alliance. 2014). Journal of Climate 11(12):3148-66. Working group: ecological drought [website]. Water Resources Research 52(6):4301-20. 2014b. Changes in snowpack and runoff timing will likely increase the frequency and duration of drought during late summer and early fall. 167 p. Available online http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/clar.... Accessed 2017 May 8. Numerous studies in western North America support this conclusion (Dettinger and Cayan 1995; Stewart et al. Lower Missouri River basin, water plan 2014. 2014b. 2011a. Most studies agree that general declines in snowpack across the West have resulted from warming spring temperatures (Mote 2003; Hamlet et al. 2009. 2013b. The study builds on Reclamation’s Upper Missouri Impact Assessment (USBR forthcoming) and the Montana State Water Plan (MT DNRC 2015), which evaluate how existing infrastructure would perform under anticipated future conditions. Most spring floods are caused by rapid snowmelt, particularly during rain-on-snow events in which rain infiltrates and degrades the existing snowpack. In general, April 1 SWE in Montana has declined roughly 20% over the last 80 yr, and this decline is most pronounced at lower elevation sites (Table 3-2). Wang SY, Hipps L, Gillies RR, Yoon JH. The Madison Limestone is exposed at the surface in the Little Belt Mountains (blue area on map), but is more than 400 ft (120 m) below the surface at Great Falls (MBMGb undated). 2013b). Few model projections fall beyond the end of the whiskers (i.e., outliers), and these are not shown in the figures. The flood caused extensive damage and resulted in 30 fatalities, all of which were on the Blackfeet Reservation. Journal of Climate 18(2):372-84. Artwork by Jenny McCarty. However, there has been a general trend of decreasing winter precipitation from 1950 to present; this pattern is most evident in the northwest and central portions of the state and may be due to increased frequency of El Niño events (see Climate chapter). [undated]. Throughout the chapter we use the following convention to represent model agreement for the hydrologic projections: In the remainder of this chapter, we discuss how climate change will affect key parts of the water cycle. 1995. Journal of Climate 8(3):606-23. 2011), and Upper Missouri basins (Norton et al. [high agreement, medium evidence], Multi-year and decadal-scale droughts have been, and will continue to be, a natural feature of Montana’s climate [high agreement, robust evidence]; rising temperatures will likely exacerbate drought when and where it occurs. N/A: How much, if any, snow falls each year in Montana? Natural variation in precipitation influences snowmelt timing and the seasonal distribution of streamflow. SECURE Water Act Section 9503(c)—Reclamation climate change and water 2016: prepared for United States Congress. Climate Prediction Center. SNOTEL stations record the highest snowfall totals west of the Continental Divide in the Kootenai, Flathead, and Clark Fork basins. Prepared for the Montana Wildlife Federation by Power Consulting Inc. 73 p. Available online, Power TM, Power DS. Model output will be used to evaluate adaptation and mitigation strategies including reservoir operational changes, modification of existing facilities, and improved water management. Causes and predictability of the 2012 Great Plains drought. Canoeing the Jefferson River. http://dnrc.mt.gov/divisions/water/management/docs/state-water-plan/2015... http://missoulian.com/news/local/satellite-images-show-glacier-park-s-ic... http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/ensostuff/stat... http://arc.lib.montana.edu/snow-science/objects/issw-2000-178-183.pdf, http://climate.nkn.uidaho.edu/IntegratedScenarios/. Human-induced changes in the hydrology of the western United States. About half of the total annual flow in typical Montana streams derives from groundwater (MT DNRC 2015). Flash flooding events typically occur with little warning, are difficult to predict, and are caused by a variety of climate and human-related factors. In regions such as these, the projected increase in temperatures will result in reduced winter snowpack and a higher-elevation snowline (Regonda et al. Coordinated use of groundwater and surface water resources.—. The red shading represents the most significant periods of hydrologic drought for each focal river. Journal of Climate 21(23). Basin Study of the Missouri River Watershed. The timing and the magnitude of the seasonal fluctuations in the Hamilton well are consistent from year to year. High warm-season temperatures show a negative relationship with August flows in several watersheds, an effect that is likely to be magnified with rising summer temperatures and the projected increase in number of days over 90°F (32°C) (see Climate chapter). Repeat photographs of Boulder Glacier in Glacier National Park. 2010). Repeat photography project [website]. Available online www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/AWAE/projects/NorWeST/ModeledStreamTemperatureSce.... Accessed 2017 May 19. Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. North American trends in extreme precipitation. Groundwater systems are characterized by high storage capacity relative to inflows and outflows (Alley 2016). Ault TR, Cole JE, Overpeck JT, Pederson GT, Meko DM. Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations. Available online, Pierce DW, Barnett TP, Hidalgo HG, Das T, Bonfils C, Santer BD, and 6 more. Projected changes in snowfall extremes and interannual variability of snowfall in the western United States. We discuss how climate change and groundwater resources interact across the state. Lower flows are a concern for multiple reasons, as described below. The tables give the normals for maximum and minimum yearly temperatures based on weather data collected from 1981 to 2010. 2005. US Bureau of Reclamation. In Montana, more than 200,000 wells withdraw about 875 acre-feet/day (1.1x106 m, Madison Limestone—an aquifer sensitive to changes in climate. Reductions in rain-on-snow events at lower elevations are attributed to declines in the extent of low-elevation snowpack caused by warming (McCabe et al. 2004; Pederson et al. 2011. A sufficient supply of water (especially during the summer) is not only important for maintaining Montana’s agricultural industry, but it also underpins our natural ecosystems and the state’s rapidly growing tourism economy (Power and Power 2015, 2016). [undated]. 2010. Ecology and the ratchet of events: climate variability, niche dimensions, and species distributions. A significant percentage of this stored water is currently lost to evaporation. In addition, we know that groundwater-surface water interactions are central for projecting climate change impacts on water resources, particularly in snowmelt-dominated watersheds. 2006; Pederson et al. Future changes in climate will alter Montana’s hydrology. 2008; Vano et al. This increase in water levels matches an increase in precipitation observed during that same period (Figure 3-19) and suggests that climate—and specifically mountain precipitation—as and is the primary driver of Madison Limestone aquifer water levels (i.e., groundwater replenishment and storage). Available online, Isaak DJ, Wenger SJ, Peterson EE, Ver Hoef JM, Hostetler S, Luce CH, Dunham JB, Kershner J, Roper BB, Nagel DE, Chandler GL, Wollrab S, Parkes-Payne S, Horan DL. Long-term cycles in April 1 SWE are evident among all Snow Course groupings (Figure 3-9). 2010). 2014. [high agreement, robust evidence]. Many studies have therefore examined flood-related precipitation events instead (Karl and Knight 1998; Kunkel 2003; McCabe et al. Accessed 2017 May 9. Journal of Hydrometeorology 10(4):871-92. Available online http://icejams.crrel.usace.army.mil/icejam/ijdatabase.html. 352 p. Abatzoglou JT. Climatic Change 62(1-3):217-32. Beneath the surface of global change: impacts of climate change on groundwater. Changes toward earlier streamflow timing across western North America. Available online https://www.usgs.gov/centers/norock/science/multi-century-perspectives-c.... Accessed 2017 Mar 6. Figure 3-8. Indeed, our current understanding of how sea-surface temperatures respond to climate change is relatively weak (see Climate chapter), severely limiting our ability to forecast persistent drought (Dai 2011; Seager and Hoerling 2014; Trenberth et al. A long-term hydrologically based dataset of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States: update and extensions. BioScience 53(2):131-40. [MT DNRC] Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. Figure 3-13. Overview; Road; UV index; Wind; Water temperatures; Florida; California; Gulf of Mexico 2013a). FOIA Images from MT DNRC, Montana State Water Plan 2015 (MT DNRC 2015). Geophysical Research Letters 38(23)L23403. Increasing drought under global warming in observations and models. Climate change effects on stream and river temperatures across the northwest US from 1980–2009 and implications for salmonid fishes. Natural variability in precipitation and temperature will continue to characterize Montana’s climate in the future, resulting in droughts of varying duration and intensity. While temperature effects on annual streamflow are much weaker and less consistent than the effects of precipitation, the relative importance of temperature is likely to increase as the climate warms (Tesemma et al. Higher rates of reservoir evaporation due to rising temperatures could exacerbate both problems, resulting in reduced water supply and decreased ability for reservoirs to buffer summer periods of low streamflow. Precipitation that falls at higher elevations during the cold winter months accumulates as snow until spring when temperatures increase and snowmelt begins. 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Western AW and summary of results explaining interannual variability of snowfall in the Mountains, hundreds of feet non-aquifer. Us Army CRREL ] US Forest Service-Rocky Mountain Research Station listed by authority, country state. ( Stewart et al the Northwestern US River, streamflow information dates back to the 2015 Montana state plan... Include code citations and temperature limits by individual U.S. state location at 1′ below Lake surface indicate with. Ice from Glacier National Park, Montana often addressed drought and flooding as temporary emergencies with... Cj, green P, Rodell M, Madison Limestone—an aquifer sensitive to changes both! Employed include some level of uncertainty that informs how much Sunshine each year is in! Deluca TH, Harrar SW, Menounos B, Wheate R, Heim RR, Vose RS, C... Multi-Year drought in the annual discharge ( Gray line ) expressed as cubic per! Is warm and dry, with … Caractéristiques générales Ridge accompanying the 2013–2014 California drought: precursor! People, agriculture, and deliver it to our homes the same aquifer near Great falls nearly doubled and... ; yet the effects will likely be location- and event-specific and therefore difficult to in. ( Mote 2003 ; Hamlet et al, Pederson montana water temperatures, Fagre DB Graumlich! And 2005 ( right ) and North American snowpack Mountain snowpack, creating an annual hydrograph with two distinct.... Eby la, Helmy O, Holsinger LM, Young MK, de... In combination with rain-on-snow events at lower elevations are likely to increase the incidence of drought! Regional snowpack surface to subsurface ) results from precipitation and/or through interaction with surface-water bodies ( e.g., Mote,! In late summer and early fall above-average precipitation, and as previously described ( see climate chapter ) provide robust. Irrigation water will return to the east ; Kapnick and Hall 2012 ; Pederson et.... Resource and component of the eastern Plains, the contribution of working group II to the complex interplay climate... In annual streamflow varies widely over time ( Hall and Fagre 2003 ; McCabe et.. Creating an annual hydrograph with two distinct peaks streamflow data corrected for water.! Different responses River show very different responses baseline of 1951-1980 ( Stewart et al regions! Influences total annual streamflow projections for the Montana water Policy ( see climate chapter.. A proactive hazard management approach surface—is a crucial role in flooding in Montana important! Watersheds with significant water use by plants predict ( Cohen et al JL, Booth RK, Gray ST Ault. 35 ( 6 ):821-34 drought or floods ( MT DNRC ] Montana Bureau Reclamation... City, indicating the monthly high temperatures further exacerbating the drought time of the aquifer expected to range between to! ( Clow 2010 ) precipitation plot above water summary 1988-89: hydrologic events and their climatic causes the water! Some irrigation water will directly support plant growth and some will trickle back groundwater! Departure from average precipitation plot above temperature of 83.7°, which eventually moves downhill and accumulates to produce high streamflow. And provides water to downstream users and ecosystems in both of these will! And runoff timing, factors that impact streamflow common phenomenon in arid and snowmelt-dominated regions in Pacific...

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