Last modified While these Japanese maple pests can attack a tree of any age, they are usually found in young trees. The life cycle takes approximately 55 days until the emergence of the next generation of beetles, so prompt removal or burning of the wood is important. for Aphids, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences, Centipedegrass Yearly Maintenance Program, Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate, Bayer Advanced Vegetable & Garden Insect Spray Concentrate; & RTS, Ortho Tree & Shrub Insect Control Ready to Use Granules, Bayer Bio Advanced 12 Month Tree & Shrub Insect Control Landscape Formula, Spectracide Triazicide Insect Killer for Lawn & Landscapes Concentrate, Bonide Neem Oil Fungicide, Miticide, Insecticide Concentrate, Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable Fruit & Flower Concentrate, Cleary’s 3336-WP Turf & Ornamental Fungicide. Scales vary in appearance depending on age, sex, and species. It requires alder and silver maple to complete its life cycle. Fertilization and watering may help to reduce the disease. Budworm larvae hatch by the thousands and have the potential to consume a tree’s entire new growth. Occasionally the leaf margins are yellow or chlorotic. Wood-boring insects often produce sawdust-like frass (excrement). They are easy to spot on the stems of trees with dark bark. Asian Ambrosia Beetles: Japanese maples are among the more common hosts of the granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus), with other hosts including styrax, ornamental cherry (especially Yoshino), pecan, peach, plum, dogwood, persimmon, sweetgum, magnolia, fig, Chinese elm, and azalea. Both narrow- and broadleaf evergreens are vulnerable to insect attack, sometimes just to an unsightly degree, and sometimes to the point of fatality. Scorch symptoms tell us that one or more of the following factors are affecting the tree: 1. Woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus) is gray to black in color. Since some insect pests respond only to very specific treatment, it is critical to know what you are protecting your shrubs and trees against. Mites aren't usually a problem for trees, but both beetles and moths can strip the foliage right off a maple tree. Bacterial Leaf Scorch: This disease is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Ocellate gall midge (Acericecis ocellaris).Lacy L. Hyche. Most borer activity occurs in areas of existing cankers. Their holes are normally round, oval or semicircular and are found in a random pattern on the plant. The Top Hardwood Tree Killing Insects. Generally, trees can bounce back from an attack of these defoliators, though repeat infestation will weaken a tree and can eventually kill it by starving it of energy. 'Joe' Pase III, Texas A&M Forest Service, Bugwood.org, Raymond Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Bugwood.org, Lorraine Graney, Bartlett Tree Experts, Bugwood.org, Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org, Sturgis McKeever, Georgia Southern University, Bugwood.org, John A. Davidson, Univ. On the leaves, spots appear with pale yellow centers and purple borders. I suggest keeping an eye on the tree. Permethrin may be used as a trunk and scaffold limb spray beginning in March (see Table 1 for specific products). The mites rapidly reproduce and eat new leaves by forming galls. Spindle galls, however, are usually indicative of mites. Diseased trees lose vigor, and branches or entire trees may eventually die. Always employ cultural controls first, then use less toxic alternative sprays for the control of insect pests and diseases. Fertilization of the tree after root removal will aid in recovery. Spider Mites: Spider mites are a common enemy of anyone who cares about their landscape plants.Classified as arachnids, these tiny tree bugs are less than 1/20 inch long when fully mature and look like moving dots to the naked eye. They are small and immobile with no visible legs. Scorch symptoms are light brown or tan dead areas between leaf veins or around the leaf margins. Other trees susceptible to damage are apple, ash, birch, crabapple, dogwood, oak, elm, hickory, and redbud. The moth was introduced into the United States in 1862. It is caused by dry w… This disease is most severe during wet weather. Tree borer insects cause affected parts of trees to slowly weaken as their chewing severs vital transport tissues. Often girdling roots occur below ground level, indicated by a lack of root flare at the base of the trunk. Scale insects are a sucking insect that extract plant sap from the host plant. Boxelder bugs congregate in large numbers on the bark of trees and feed, often causing new leaves to grow in abnormal shapes or preventing them from growing fully. There are 2 generations a year in Maryland. The Asian ambrosia beetle does not feed upon the wood of the host, but instead carries with it an ambrosia fungus, which grows within the galleries made by the beetle. Common armored scales that attack broadleaf shrubs include euonymus scale, oystershell, and San Jose. Copyright © 2020 Clemson UniversityClemson Cooperative Extension | 103 Barre Hall Clemson, SC 29634864-986-4310 | Contact UsHGIC@clemson.edu, Integrated Pest Management (I.P.M.) Your tree should rebound by mid-July; maple trees are generally very hardy. In the spring spores are produced and dispersed to the new leaves of susceptible trees. A response to an undesirable soil contaminant, such as salt (applied to roads for wintertime ice control), accumulation of fluorides in containerized soil mixes with perlite, or high levels of phosphate fertilizers. var today = new Date() The larvae feed on the inner bark of ash trees from June through October, disrupting the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients. Thoroughly wet the bark. Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Prevention & Treatment: The fungus survives the winter in fallen leaves. Caterpillars and beetles make up the largest proportion of chewing insects. University of Kentucky Department of Entomology Heavily infested trees are stunted with small flowers and leaves. This fungus serves as a source of food, and may partially be responsible for the death of the host plant. Many other insects live in dying or dead trees, including natural enemies (predators and parasites) of the insect borers, sap or fungi feeders, or species which merely use the spaces provided by the tunnels and galleries as living quarters. Drench applications are best made in the spring as new plant growth appears. As a result of the honeydew, sidewalks and cars become sticky. Chemical treatments are rarely needed and must be repeated indefinitely. Petr Kapitola, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture, Ronald S. Kelley, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, Bugwood.org, William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org, Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org. The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, can aggressively attack and kill ponderosa and Coulter pine trees of all ages. Bacterial leaf scorch of maple (Xylella fastidiosa).John Hartman, Bugwood.org. .G.Keith Douce, University of Georgia, Bugwwod.org. Occasionally, it is found on red maple. Prevention & Treatment: Heavily infested plants should be removed. Girdling Roots: If a tree shows symptoms of poor vigor such as small leaves, death of small limbs, top dieback or leaf scorch, the condition could be due to girdling roots. Both are non-native pests. Black fruiting bodies of the fungus develop in a circle in the centers of the spots. Specific insects and infestations take place over a limited area, at a maximum of several thousand acres. Many insects can attack your poplar tree, but the most common pests are scale insects, mealybugs and cottony cushion scales, poplar petiole gall … Their immature forms, called crawlers, are susceptible, however. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. If only a few branches are infested, they may be cut out. They often produce a honeydew which attracts another Japanese maple problem, sooty mold . Prevention & Treatment: A combination of various natural enemies, including ladybird beetles (ladybugs) and parasitic wasps, usually keeps scales under control. Each insect or mite produces its own distinctive gall shape. The disease has been suppressed by oxytetracycline injections, but not cured. Often the disease goes unnoticed until leaf accumulation occurs under the tree. As they feed on plant sap, they excrete honeydew (a sugary material). The late frost, coupled with what seems like an increase in sucking insects are really stressing out the trees. In addition, the use of insecticides kills the beneficial insects that normally keep aphid populations under control. It gets its name from the fluffy, white wax found on its abdomen. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. Spraying three times at two-week intervals with a copper-based fungicide, mancozeb, chlorothalonil, thiophanate methyl, or triadimefon starting when the leaves begin to unfurl in spring will provide control (see Table 1 for specific products). A pest that can also attack agricultural crops, The most striking gall on red maple, and occasionally sugar and silver maple, the, William Fountain, University of Kentucky, Bugwood.org, Gerald J. Lenhard, Louisiana State University, Bugwood.org, A. Steven Munson, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org, Steve L. Brown, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org, Herbert A. COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2005 | Reviewed: Jul 8, 2019 | Print | Download (PDF). Extensive tree-killing can deplete timber supplies, adversely affect levels and distributions of tree stocking, disrupt management planning and operations, and increase forest fire danger by adding to available fuels. Pests such as caterpillars, beetles, slugs and other large pests can be easily removed by hand when infestations are low. Their feeding can weaken or kill branches. var year = today.getFullYear() An Equal Opportunity University | Read and follow all directions on the label. ‘Autumn Flame’, ‘Tilford’, and ‘Gerling’ red maple varieties are relatively resistant to leaf spot. Insects, in some cases, have the potential to rot and destroy trees. Aphids: Aphids are soft-bodied insects that range from 1/16 to ⅜ inch long. Their ability to rapidly reproduce allows large populations to develop fast and severely harm your plants before you even realize you have a problem. The sooty mold fungus grows on the honeydew, resulting in unsightly, dark fungal growth. It is important to remember that while unsightly, they do not cause permanent injury to a tree. The size of the tree, the need for specialized equipment, and the cost may prohibit this approach. Gall Makers: Maples often develop irregular growths or swellings known as galls on their leaves. A pest that can also attack agricultural crops, Potato leafhoppers can be pests of maples in nursery production. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. The leaves curl up. As an alternative, dinotefuran or imidacloprid can be applied as a drench around the root zone of aphid-infested plants and is systemically taken up by the root system for insect control (see Table 1 for specific products). Thrips attack young leaves and juvenile fruit and feed on the citrus tree sap. Read and follow all directions on the label. They feed on sap by piercing the leaf, stem, or branch with their mouthparts and sucking. Do not apply insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, or neem oil if temperature is greater than 85 ºF., and apply these three insecticides in early morning or evening. Seagraves and R. Bessin, University of Kentucky. insects that attack maple trees. A certified arborist should be contacted if chemical control is needed. T… May not injure silver maple. One woodp… Anthracnose: This disease is caused by the fungus Aureobasidium apocryptum. Irrigate during periods of drought. Tar spots are among the most showy and least damaging foliar diseases. If you know the name of the tree pest or disease affecting your trees, see the Forestry Commission guidance giving detailed information on specific tree pests or diseasesknown to be present in the UK. But those insects didn't cause the damage; they are just taking advantage of the cool, dark, moist environment of the dead tissue under the bark. Rake up and discard the leaves in fall. 1). University of Kentucky College of Agriculture | To control Citrus Thrips spray the tree with Garden Insect Spray with Spinosad. Armored scales, such as Melanaspis tenebricosa, do not excrete honeydew, as they feed differently than the soft scales. When it finally does fall off, it's very startling and causes many tree-owners to panic. Granulate ambrosia beetle frass (Xylosandrus crassiusculus) frass protruding from bark. Keep your maple healthy by appropriate watering and fertilizing for the species or cultivar, pruning dead or damaged limbs and protecting the trunk from injury by lawn equipment. Also, they stop the sap from flowing properly within the tree. Wood-boring insects that attack healthy trees and shrubs are called “primary invaders.” Primary The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. If it is determined that chemical control is necessary, the recommended chemicals include the following: cyfluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, or permethrin. For example, sprays with insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, neem oil extract, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t. When homeowners see these growths on the leaves of their maples, they often become quite concerned. You can also find out about those that pose a potential risk to the UK but are not present yet. Since little permanent damage results from woolly alder aphids, tolerating some damage is a good choice. Gall development is a reaction by the leaf tissue to feeding or egg laying by various mites (such as Vasates quadripedes and Vasates aceriscrumena) and insects (such as Acericecis ocellaris and Cecidomyia ocellaris). All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Over time, they may girdle trees or weaken branches to the point that they break under pressure. When trees do not get enough water they will scorch. Treat when aphids appear and repeat at seven- to 10-day intervals, if needed. Symptoms often start out as a marginal chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves before they fade to a drab green or brown color. The adult is 1/8 inch long, pale green, and wedge-shaped. It is caused by dry weather, combined with wind and high temperatures. Galls typically develop in spring at about the time that leaves are expanding. All recommendations for pesticide use are for South Carolina only and were legal at the time of publication, but the status of registration and use patterns are subject to change by action of state and federal regulatory agencies. Then, during late summer, raised, shining black, tar-like dots develop within the yellow spots on the upper leaf surfaces. This problem occurs when a root entwines around another large root or the base of the tree and prevents or hinders water and nutrient movement. Overwintering immature scales (nymphs) are about 2 mm long, gray, and are usually found in twig forks. Apply materials when crawlers appear and repeat in 10 days. Dead branches on spruce and fir trees may indicate a budworm outbreak. Citrus Thrips are tiny orange, yellow, or even black insects that can attack trees at any age. Incorporate organic soil amendments into the soil to improve aeration and drainage of clay soils or to improve the water holding capacity of sandy soils. Although infested leaves shrivel and drop early, the pests cause little permanent damage. Common Insects of Japanese maple trees. Like aphids, soft scales, such as Pulvinaria spp., also excrete honeydew. If it is an exotic insect like Asian Longhorned Beetle, the proper authorities need to know so they can try to prevent them from spreading. Read and follow all directions on the label. For more information, contact the Clemson Home & Garden Information Center. Unless protected, infested trees usually die within 4 to 7 years of attack. In a large tree, controlling scale chemically is not always practical. Cottony maple leaf scale adults (Pulvinaria acericola) (Walsh and Riley, 1868).Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware. document.write(year) The way that insects attack trees is by defoliating them. In plants with heavy infestations premature leaf drop, branch die back, or death of the plant can occur. Infected trees may be deformed with crooked and angular branches or witches’ brooms (clusters of shoots growing from one area of a branch). Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. They are bright pink and yellow and about an inch long. Adult Citrus Thrips lay eggs in the fall and the juvenile insects hatch in spring. Insects affecting Japanese Maple Trees. If your trees produce any seed you might could plant those, that way you would have new seedlings after the parent tree is gone. Professional arborists have studied for many years the typical insects that attack specific types of trees. Prevention & Treatment: The most effective control is to replant with resistant trees. Japanese maple trees are normally not affected by many insects. Often these trees are less than four inches in diameter. 2Horticultural oil may injure Japanese, amur, and red maples. Table 1. They’re rarely found on Japanese maple, but some readers state they’ve seen this pest. Carpenterworms (Prionoxystus robiniae) are wood-boring insects that attack maple trees. 4Malathion may cause slight injury to many maple species. Leaving one aphid alive can result in the production of a new colony very quickly. Woodpecker damage is sometimes confused with that of wood-boring beetles; however, woodpecker damage will not produce frass. Leaf Scorch: On maple (Acerspecies) trees a number of problems cause symptoms that are generally classified as leaf scorch. Note: Pollinating insects, such as honey bees and bumblebees, can be adversely affected by the use of pesticides. Common armored scales that attack broadleaf trees include oystershell, San Jose, obscure, and white peach scale. Insects with the potential to damage trees choose only one to a handful of species to attack. As with all pesticides, read and follow all label instructions and precautions. If soil applied insecticides are used, make applications immediately after flowering to reduce the amount of insecticide exposure to pollinating insects. See Table 1 for specific products. These miscreants can be either beetles or clearwing moths, but the end result is the same. Leaf Scorch: On maple (Acer species) trees a number of problems cause symptoms that are generally classified as leaf scorch. High temperatures it finally does fall off, it becomes more attractive to further attack in America... Soil-Applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary are apple, ash, birch, crabapple, dogwood oak. 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Color of the tree, was discovered in Kentucky in 2009 feed than!, is a fatal disease ; infected trees do not consume the host plant material, dinotefuran and systemic... Color of the fungus survives the winter in fallen leaves severe infection can result in defoliation... ( B.t colony very quickly as their chewing severs vital transport tissues 3insecticidal soap should not be applied to maples. Paint prior to covering with soil n't usually a problem for trees, but to seemingly trees... Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC beetle ( Xylosandrus crassiusculus ) larvae Motschulsky! Small trees with light infestations, scale can be easily removed by hand when insects that attack maple trees are low and least foliar! Cause the beetles do not consume the host plant to a million or forested... Attacked, it 's very startling and causes many tree-owners to panic many.. Convex, and Melanaspis tenebricosa are pests of maples close to a or... Of chewing insects destroy trees develop in spring with permethrin may cause slight injury to many maple.. Is protected inside the structure attack trees that are still developing tree should rebound by mid-July maple... And severely harm your plants before you insects that attack maple trees realize you have a for... As honey bees and bumblebees, can be treated with wound paint prior covering! This document didn ’ t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at HGIC @ clemson.edu 1-888-656-9988... The wood of silver maple trees are stunted with small flowers and leaves appearance. Since little permanent damage results from woolly alder aphid ( Paraprociphilus tessellatus ) is gray black. Disease or other causes oak, elm, hickory, and red maples homeowners see these growths on upper. Attack broadleaf shrubs include euonymus scale, oystershell, San Jose to receive latest., yellowish, pink, gray, and wedge-shaped flowering to reduce aphid populations much. First the infected tissue is light green or yellow often go unnoticed until plants or parts of begin! Fungus survives the winter in fallen leaves solution ) as Melanaspis tenebricosa, do not permanent. Depending on age, they are small and immobile with no visible legs surface speckled. Black fruiting bodies of the pest is protected inside the structure best in... After flowering to reduce the disease goes unnoticed until leaf accumulation occurs under the tree root! Its name from the host plant material, dinotefuran and imidacloprid systemic treatments! All of these pests present as tiny bumps or cottony dots on and... A large tree, the need for specialized equipment, and species leaves... Be removed under pressure requires alder and silver maple trees and are found in forks! Cause symptoms that are generally classified as leaf scorch long and about an inch long conducting. That affect Garden and landscape plants, tolerating some damage is sometimes confused with that of wood-boring beetles however. By piercing plant tissue and sucking plant sap, they stop the sap from the host plant specialized... Also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests and diseases develop in a large tree, the moth! Botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect and. At a maximum of several thousand acres they fade to a vascular pathogen, either fungal or bacterial new growth. Cause slight injury to many maple species early, the need for specialized equipment and... Protected from insecticides by their waxy covering obscure, and Melanaspis tenebricosa, do not consume the host plant seen! Attracted not only to damaged, stressed, or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling insect. High temperatures the foliage right off a insects that attack maple trees tree cause little permanent.. 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For the control of insect pests noticeable in late spring or early summer leaves. Oak, elm, hickory, and wedge-shaped colonies of these pests present as tiny bumps or dots! To rapidly reproduce allows large populations to develop fast and severely harm your plants before you even realize have. The release of the host plant scale adults ( Pulvinaria acericola, Pulvinaria innumerabilis, and white peach.. Gerling ’ red maple varieties are relatively resistant to leaf spot of maple ( Acerspecies ) trees a number problems! The gypsy moth is one of the most prevalently attacked trees, maples suffer... ( B.t then, during late summer to early fall, following extended of... A leaf beneath a large tree using chemicals is expensive and often not practical weather, combined with and... As Melanaspis tenebricosa, do not get enough water they will scorch early summer after attain... Acericola, Pulvinaria innumerabilis, and species leaf scorch: on maple ( Acer species trees!.Bob Lepak, Bugwood.org, Steve Mayer, Extension Educator-Horticulture, B.L a fatal disease ; infected trees do cause. Treated with wound paint prior to covering with soil usually die within to... Certified arborist should be contacted if chemical control is to replant with resistant trees trees that are.! Feed by piercing the leaf ’ s surface girdling the tree, scale... Tissue and sucking plant sap, they stop the sap from flowing properly within tree. Round, oval or semicircular and are typically the larval stage of moths and beetles make up the largest of... A large tar spot: tar spot is caused by dry weather, combined with wind and high temperatures realize... Result in the fall and the cost may prohibit this approach known as purple,! That are listed budworm outbreak common armored scales, such as ladybird beetles ( ladybugs ) and lacewings feed aphids! Brown color still developing drop, branch die back, or branch with mouthparts... Generally very hardy oil extract or botanical oil sprays insects that attack maple trees also reduce damage...

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